What is a rocket? and How does roket fly

What is a rocket? 

 A rocket is a space vehicle or a special engine, which works to propel the vehicle in the air.  A rocket or rocket engine produces thrust to propel an object into the sky, whether it is a spacecraft that will orbit the Earth or a bottle rocket that will explode with a bang.

How does a rocket fly?

 Rockets in space work on the basis of a scientific law, which is called Newton’s third law of motion.  According to Isaac Newton’s third law of motion, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

 The rocket engine pushes the hot gas outwards, causing the gas to exhaust rapidly and this exhaust pushes the rocket in the opposite direction to itself.  The rocket pushes the exhaust gas backwards.  The exhaust of gas propels the rocket upward.

 We can also understand this with an example.  Suppose a person is standing on a skate board and he throws a ball.  The ball will move forward.  The person standing on the skateboard will also move.  The person will move backward because the person’s weight is greater than the weight of the thrown ball.

How many types of rockets are there?

 On the basis of the fuel used in the rocket engine, rockets are mainly classified into two parts:

 1. Liquid Fuel Rocket

 2. Solid Fuel Rocket

1. Liquid fuel rocket – Liquid fuel is used in the engines of modern rockets.  Such as the main engines of Space Shuttle orbiters and Russian Soyuz rockets, these use liquid propellants.

2. Solid fuel rocket – Two white colored solid boosters are fitted on the sides of the spacecraft, these use solid propellants.  Solid fuel is also used in rockets and model rockets for fireworks.

 Depending on the other fuel used

 Ion Rocket – Ionized gas is used as propellant in ion engine.  Because the gas is ionized, it can be affected by the electric field.  The electric field is generated with high voltage, which pushes the ions out of the engine with high velocity and creates thrust.  The ion engine releases very little gas at extremely high speed.  Therefore, ion engine consumes less fuel than chemical engine.

 Plasma Rocket – Plasma is used as propellant in plasma engines, which is an electrically neutral mix of positive ions and electrons.  An electric field is used to accelerate the plasma and a magnetic field is used to direct it in the proper direction, due to which the plasma exits the engine and produces thrust for the rocket.

What are the uses of rockets?

 Rockets are used for the following tasks.

 For space flight – Due to the rocket’s very high exhaust velocity (9000 -16000 km/hour) they are used where high speed is required, such as to achieve orbital speed which is approximately  It is 28000 km/h.  Rockets are the only means of placing spacecraft or artificial satellites in or beyond the orbit.  They are also used when a spacecraft must quickly accelerate to change orbit or return to Earth.  Rockets are also used to convert the hard landing of the parachute into a soft landing before touching the ground.

 For science and research – When scientists do any research related to the atmosphere, they use rockets.  Typically, sounding rockets carry instruments to take readings between 50 and 1500 kilometers above the Earth’s surface.  These rockets are capable of carrying out scientific experiments that do not require staying in space for a long time.

 For military purposes – Rockets are used to deliver some military weapons to their targets.  When a guidance system is used in the weapon and the payload is on a rocket then it is called a missile, and if it is unguided then it is called a rocket.  Anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles use rocket engines to hit targets at high speed and up to several miles.

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